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How to grow mushrooms, what are the methods for growing mushrooms?

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How to grow mushrooms, what are the methods for growing mushrooms?

Date of release:2018-12-29 Author:Hubei Shengtai Food Co., Ltd. Click:

Mushroom cultivation


食用菌批发


Site selection


The cultivation site should choose a place with flat terrain, convenient transportation, fresh air and excellent water quality, and do a good job in soil pesticide residue and heavy metal detection in advance. The planning and design of the park will achieve land use enlargement, scientific layout and long-term service life. After completion, it should have good bacteria, mushrooming conditions and ability to withstand extreme weather (high temperature, drought, strong wind, heavy rain, flooding, hail). . The shed is 3~3.2 meters high, 11 meters wide and 60 meters long. The material is steel pipe or steel structure, the roof is covered with double-layer plastic cloth, and the middle is insulated with cotton felt. The mushroom shed is 2.5 meters high and 6.8 meters wide. The length is generally 40~50 meters and the spacing is 1.1 meters. The material is bamboo and wood structure. The roof is covered with plastic rainproof. The ceiling is 1 meter away from the roof. 95% single layer Shading nets cool down. The water spray facility is a rotary micro-jet system.


2. Cultivation season and variety


The stick time is from January to March, and the mushrooming time is from May to November. The variety is high temperature 18.

Preparation


The sawdust is selected from hardwoods of broadleaf trees, and the processing thickness is 4~8mm. The local tree species are eucalyptus, chestnut, fruit trees, some birch and hedgehog. Tree species containing antibacterial or bactericidal substances such as pine, cedar, cypress, and alfalfa are prohibited. Excipient wheat bran is the original new bran that has not been adulterated. It is forbidden to use rice bran. Gypsum requires calcium sulfate content greater than 90%. The whiter the finer the better the quality, the initial setting time is 20~30 minutes.


3. Formula


Wood chips 79%, wheat bran 20%, gypsum 1%.


Mixing


The wood chips are watered on the stockyard to make it slightly fermented and soft, preventing puncture of the bag. Mechanical screening is used to remove small pieces of wood, small branches and angular hard objects in the wood chips. Weigh the wood chips, wheat bran and gypsum according to the formula and put them into the mixer to dry the mixture, so that the culture materials are evenly mixed, and then add water to continue stirring to make the water content of the culture material reach 55%~60%.


4. Bagging


The bag is a low-pressure polyethylene plastic bag, the specification is 15.5×55×0.005cm. It is mechanically bagged and manually tied. Bagging requirements are tight and tight, tied tightly, lightly handled, no time limit, daily material clear, and found broken holes in time. The standard bag weighs 1.9~2.0 kg.


5. Sterilization


It is sterilized by atmospheric pressure energy-saving boiler, and the number of sterilization per pot is 5000 bags. Steaming materials require timely entry into the stove and reasonable stacking of bags. The cover is a layer of quilt with two layers of new plastic, which is tied with a colored strip of cloth or canvas. After the stove was reached, the temperature was raised to 100 ° C in 6 hours, maintained at medium heat for 24 hours, and suffocated for 2 hours after the ceasefire. The temperature of the material dropped below 70 ° C and the pan was found.


6. Vaccination


The inoculation room should do a good job of environmental sanitation in advance, do a good job of disinfection, disinfectant using aerosol disinfection box, and clean the floor with new plastic. Inoculate when the temperature of the bag drops below 20 °C. The strain should be selected from the age-appropriate strains of hyphae, which are white, strong and evenly grown, and disinfected with the medicament. The medicament is immersed in 0.1% potassium permanganate solution for 1 minute or diluted with 0.25% chlorhexidine for 1 minute. The inoculation tool and the disinfected strain are put into the inoculation account and fumigation with the aerosol disinfection box 6 to 8 hours in advance, and the dosage per cubic meter is 5 grams. The tools, bags and operators' hands were sterilized with 75% alcohol at the time of inoculation. Single-sided four-point inoculation, the inoculated bacteria rods covered with inoculation holes to keep warm and moisturizing.


7. Hair culture


The bacteria room is dark or warm, and the temperature is kept between 15 °C and 20 °C. The air humidity is 65%. During the period of germination, according to the changes of temperature, shed temperature, stack temperature and bag temperature, timely ventilation, heat dissipation and turning work should be done to prevent hypoxia and high temperature burning. When the diameter of the mycelial loop reaches 8~10cm, punctured punctures are made, and 4 holes are pierced around each inoculation point, and the hole depth is 1cm. When the hyphae is half full, the second puncture is performed. 8~10 holes per side, the hole depth is 1.5cm. 7 days after the hyphae is full, carry out the third puncture hole, the puncture holes on both sides and bottom surface, the number is 30, the depth is 2cm.


The fungus sticks are sprayed for about 50 to 60 days, the hyphae are full of bags, and cultured for 80 to 90 days to reach physiological maturity. Signs of physiological maturity: Mycelium tumors account for two-thirds of the entire surface of the bag. The hand-knotted tumor has a soft and elastic feeling. When the color is partially changed around the inoculation hole, it indicates that the hyphae are physiologically mature and can enter the mushroom field. Change color to produce mushrooms.




8. Take off the bag and change color


When the bag is taken out, the temperature of the mushroom shed should be above 15 °C. After the bag is removed, the bacteria will be arranged upwards, and 9 bags of rice will be extended in a single row. When the bag is removed, the air outlet is closed, and the soil is covered and watered in time to reduce the loss of moisture of the bacteria bar. Reasonably regulate temperature, humidity, ventilation, and do a good job of color change. The bacteria sticks are sprayed with water for the first time and after each mushroom is finished, the soil cover should be checked and the sticks should be covered to keep the sticks suitable for moisture and prevent the occurrence of the mushrooms.


    How to grow mushrooms? What are the methods of planting mushrooms?


Mushroom cultivation method


  1. Mushroom management


After the bacteria bar turns color, it enters the mushroom stage. The suitable temperature for the formation of the primordium of the mushroom is 10-20 ° C, and a temperature difference between day and night of more than 10 ° C is required. Water management adopts the method of alternating wet and dry water spraying. When the mushroom is produced, the water content of the bacteria bar reaches 60%~65%, and the air humidity reaches 80%~90%. According to the specific conditions of the mushroom rod, the temperature difference, dry and wet difference, vibration can be adopted. Stimulation and other measures to promote the occurrence of mushroom buds. Reasonable artificial buds, 6 to 8 mushrooms per stick. When the fruiting body grows to 6~7 minutes, it is harvested in time and harvested, and it is harvested 3~5 times a day. The mushrooms harvested at the right time have good color, thick flesh and meat, high commodity value, late harvesting, fungus umbrella development, thin flesh, light weight and low commodity value. Remove mushroom roots and mine mushrooms in time to prevent pests and diseases after decay. Pesticide and heavy metal sampling tests were carried out during each tidal period.


2. Vaccine management


Reduce the number of watering when the bacteria is reduced, so that the water content of the stick is reduced to 55%~60%. The water management is to prevent the water from being too hard to cause the skin to lose water and harden, affecting the mushroom, and the second is to prevent excessive water spray, resulting in Mushrooms, so that the bacteria failed. The time of rest is 10-15 days. When the footwell of the mushroom is white, the bacteria stick is restored to elasticity and the bacteria is finished. In the high temperature period in summer, the management of the mushroom stick is centered on cooling and nourishing the bacteria, and the natural mushroom is mainly used to prevent the occurrence of dead mushrooms. After the autumn, the environmental conditions are conducive to the formation of mushroom buds and the growth of mushrooms. The stimulation and vibration of the mushroom sticks should be stopped, so that they naturally produce mushrooms. 5~6 mushrooms are produced in each production cycle.


3. Pest control


During the period of hair growth and mushrooming, there are mainly molds (Trichoderma, Neurospora, Aspergillus, Mucor, Rhizopus), bacteria, and slime. The main pests are mushroom mosquitoes, mushroom flies, spring worms, cockroaches and nematodes.

Adhere to the principle of prevention and comprehensive prevention and control, and strictly control the use of chemical drugs. Keep the environment clean and hygienic, and find that pests and diseases are removed in time and treated in a harmless manner.


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Key word:Hubeiediblefungus,Deepprocessingofediblefungi,Ediblefunguswholesale

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